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# How does the processor at the physics level work?

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Studying C++ I had a question how the PC is arranged and how does it happen that he “understands” the data to him? That is, how he understands that 2 + 2 = 4, he is not a man?

If you want to know in detail, I advise you to read the classic tonnebaum work – “Computer Architecture”, where most levels of computer functioning are considered, starting from the lowest. Most schemes are taken from there.

In modern computers, there is such an electrical element as a transistor. It is an element with three legs: collector, database, Emmitizer. But the essence is that he can depend on the signal to the base, to produce current or not.

The base signal comes from various external sources – the magnetized path of the hard disk, passing a laser beam via a CD-R, or a pin-down contact with the keyboard keypad. It doesn’t matter, the main thing is that we now have two states – there is a signal and no signal.

And now the most interesting, we can combine these transistors and get different results based on the signals included on their bases.

In fact, you are already familiar with the milk algebra, when different signals are fed to the input and is the result of another? Well, this is what it is, it is called valves.

And this means that now we have a whole constructor! And on this constructor, we can create various schemes that will give different results. Different signals filed on the base and received the result of the output.

This is how the shift diagram and the semicumor diagram looks like. By combining several semi-bypass, we just get a bright addition of numbers, what you ask about.

There are even schemes that can store the value, the so-called latches performing the role of the memory (RS trigger).

As you see no magic, well, on one processor there are billions of such transistors … no, not so – billions! This is a huge number of different schemes of various complexity and various directions on a pair of square centimeters. The calculation of their packaging on the processor as a rule, special programs are engaged in a person, it is not under force and they are created using high-precision electronics. It is difficult to submit scientific progress in a small box next to you. In general, something like this.

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